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Silicon
Silicon

Optical grade Silicon is normally specified with a resistivity of 10 to 40 ohm-cm which is higher than most semiconductor applications. The usual Silicon material, unless otherwise specified is CZ, Czochralski Grade which has a Si-O absorption band at 9μm and so not important if the windows are used in the 3 to 5μm thermal band. Where required FZ, Float Zone material can be supplied which does not have this absorption.

Very high resistivity material can be supplied on special order, particularly for TeraHertz applications.

Silicon is used for windows and lenses in the 2-7µm range, ideal choice for IR LED lenses. The refractive index is near 3.4 throughout the range. Silicon high thermal conductivity and low weight are attractive features in IR or FTIR applications. Silicon is also used as a high reflectivity mirror for lasers.

Due to the strong absorbtion at 9mkm, Silicon is not suitable for use with CO2 lasers as a transmitting optic but is widely used for CO2 mirrors. The density of Silicon is only half that of Germanium and Zinc Selenide.

Silicon properties

Chemical Formula

Si

Molecular Weight

28.09

Crystal Class

Cubic

Lattice Constant, Å

5.43

Density, g/cm3 at 293 K

2.329

Dielectric Constant for 9.37 x 109 Hz

13

Melting Point, K

1690

Thermal Conductivity, W/(m K)
at 125 K
at 313 K
at 400 K


598.6
163
105.1

Thermal Expansion, 1/K
at 75 K
at 293 K
at 1400 K


-0.5 x 10-6
2.6 x 10-6
4.6 x 10-6

Specific Heat, cal/(g K)
at 298 K
at 1800 K


0.18
0.253

Debye Temperature, K

640

Bandgap, eV

1.1

Solubility in water

None

Knoop Hardness, kg/mm2

1100

Mohs Hardness

7

Young's Modulus, GPa

130.91

Shear Modulus, GPa

79.92

Bulk Modulus, GPa

101.97

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Optical grade Silicon - index of refraction

µm   

No

µm   

No

µm   

No

1.357   

3.4975

1.367   

3.4962

1.395   

3.4929

1.5295   

3.4795

1.660   

3.4696

1.709   

3.4664

1.813   

3.4608

1.970   

3.4537

2.153   

3.4476

2.325   

3.4430

2.714   

3.4358

3.000   

3.4320

3.303   

3.430

3.500   

3.4284

4.000   

3.4257

4.258   

3.4245

4.500   

3.4236

5.000   

3.4223

5.500   

3.4213

6.000   

3.4202

6.500   

3.4195

7.000   

3.4189

7.500   

3.4186

8.000   

3.4184

8.500   

3.4182

10.00   

3.4179

10.50   

3.4178

11.04   

3.4176

 

 

 

 

 

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